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版权所有,盗图必究本期主题文系列之“说茶”,是笔者学习湖南农业大学农学系朱海燕教授的网络课程后加以整理和丰富后的笔记,希望将茶、茶文化以及茶道的相关知识传递给更多人。中国茶类丰富,或绿或红,或黄或青,数以千计。通常,因不同茶类在色泽、口感风味呈现鲜明的特点,我们按茶叶加工将茶叶分成绿、红、黄、青、黑、白,六大基本茶类。事实上,不同的茶类制作茶叶的鲜叶原料皆以绿色为主,因为不同的加工工艺而形成了不同的品质特征。Green tea
绿茶属不发酵茶,因“清汤绿叶”而得名。加工工艺包括杀青、揉捻、干燥三道工。其中,“杀青”最为关键,其目的是钝化多酚氧化酶的活性,保持翠绿的色泽。Green tea is not fermented tea and has earned its fame for vitally green leaves and its clear tea liquids after being steeped in hot water. In the process of making green tea, there are three steps: water-removing, rolling and drying. And the step of water-removing takes priority because blanching inactivates the polyphenol oxidase in fresh leaves, which determines colour and lustre of the final products.绿茶造型多样,有扁平形的,如龙井、竹叶青等;单芽形的,如千岛银针、牛抵茶;直条形的,如古丈毛尖、石门银峰;曲条形的:碧螺春,湘波绿;圆珠形的:涌溪火青,珠茶;兰花形的:舒城壮花、安吉白茶;片形的:六安瓜片扎花形的:外开似一朵花。如黄山绿牡丹等。总体而言,绿茶以其清新自然,口感鲜爽的特点成为中国消费者的主要饮用茶类。关注我们公众号,有机会品到无污染、健康的手工高山野茶。
Yellow tea
黄茶属轻发酵茶,中国特有茶类,黄汤黄叶,因而得名。鲜叶基本工艺流程是杀青、揉捻、焖黄、干燥等工序,关键工序是“焖黄”。叶绿素分解,酯型儿茶素减少。Yellow tea is unique to China as a lightly fermented tea and gained its name for golden looks of leaves and tea drinks after boiling. There are four steps to process the fresh leaves to make yellow tea: water-removing, rolling, braising and drying. And braising is very important to decompose chlorophyll and to reduce the amount of L-EGCG in fresh leaves, presenting the beautiful golden looks left on leaves.根据原料芽叶的嫩度分为:黄芽茶,如湖南君山银针、四川蒙顶黄芽。黄小茶:细嫩芽叶制成,北港毛尖,远安鹿苑,平阳黄汤等黄大茶:一芽二三叶,一芽四五叶制成。广东大叶青、霍山黄大茶。下篇预告:说“茶”——识茶中篇(点击公众号即可观看)如果您也喜欢品茶关注我们的公众号回复“茶”获取粉丝优惠购买途径!-黄山上的小靖靖-为您提供:END
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